Schools - Past & Present
Historical BackgroundA common note which sounds through the history of one-room school
houses is their promotion of a sense of community. A growing community
would bring into being a school and then the one-room school house
would become an important component of the forces which maintained
groups of people in rural areas as a community. A schoolhouse was not
only the center for children's formal education and ancillary
activities, but often served, too, as a meeting place for the area and
so reinforced the sense of community.
The One Room Schoolhouses are part of our history - they were the
institutions of education in rural America from the 1830's to
post-World War 2 when demographics rapidly changed and forces for
school consolidation strengthened.
A school building could serve more than one constituency - e.g., as a
meeting place for a small congregation, or for a union Sunday School,
or for a group such as Patrons of Husbandry, a.k.a. The
Grange. Eventually an informal group of parents, with the teacher,
might come together and hold meetings at which children could show off
their skills - singing, recitations, short plays - and could present
programs for national holidays. Then there was that very American
institution, the spelling bee - a direct spin-off from these
community-oriented one-room schools and the use in them of Noah
Webster's A Grammatical Institute of the English Language
(1783), a widely used spelling book which over many years helped to
standardize American spelling.
Often, especially after the Civil War, the teacher was a woman,
although sometimes a young man, who would teach for a year or so to
earn enough money to move to another job. These teachers were the
people, other than parents, who most influenced rural children. The
teacher could be far more than an instructor - she/he was the elder
member of a group which often thought of itself as a family - if the
teacher stayed in the community she/he could have great influence on it and be long remembered - as is Grant Wallace by Martinsville graduates.
The earliest schools in our area were private schools and usually
associated with churches – Sunday Schools, Sabbath Schools. The
earliest reference to a Sabbath School in our area that I can find is
to the Lower Windsor Sabbath School No. 2 .
This label is in a reader published in 1832, and has two names written
in the front – Samuel Rider and Mary G. (E.?) Abel.
When the Pennsylvania State Constitution was adopted in 1790, there was
no provision made for public education and all educational institutions
at that time were private and only available to those who could afford
them. Starting in 1809, the State passed various provisions that would
help provide schooling for those children between the ages of 5 and 12
whose parents were unable to educate them. This law was unpopular and
was replaced by an even more unpopular law in 1824 which stated that
each township or borough should oversee the education of the children
in their district. This was soon replaced by the Act of 1834 which
established our present system of public schools. This law mandated
that each township raise taxes to pay for the schools. Not
surprisingly, there was a lot of local opposition to this and many
bitter controversies arose, and many townships did not establish public
schools until after 1848.
The one room schools in our area are very similar in design. Almost
all are made of local stone and consist of one room with a small lobby
- the cloakroom - at the front and with 6 large windows, often 3 to the
east, 3 to the west; there are arched brick lintels above the windows.
Most have a gabled entrance with a recessed door, with a transom window
above the door. The Martinsville Schoolhouse is a good example of this
typical architecture. The exceptions are the two-room schoolhouse in
Craley, which is made from wood, The Pleasant Hill School (brick) and
Gilbert’s school in East Prospect, which was wood and burnt down in
1941. (The first school in East Prospect burnt down during the great
fire of 1900)
The first one-room schools in Lower Windsor township where built in the
mid- 1850’s. Four schools appear on the 1860 York County map, by 1876
eleven schools are indicated on the York County atlas, and the York
County School directory for 1935-36 lists 17 schools within the
township. When the Eastern York School District was consolidated in
1953-54, 17 schools were still in use.
After consolidation, the school district sold most of the schoolhouses,
and almost all are now private residences. The Snavely School, near
the corners of Mt. Pisgah & Prospect Road, was demolished by Modern
Landfill in 2004 (!). Kline’s School (at the bottom of Kline’s Run
Rd) is abandoned and in a state of disrepair. The Martinsville Schoolhouse is owned by Lower Windsor
Township and sits next to the municipal building on the Craley Rd. The
best preserved schoolhouse in the area is the Wills School, on
the East Prospect Rd just West of Delroy. It is owned and maintained
by the Conservation Society of York County.
History of Local One-Room Schools